In 553, several Korean and Chinese citizens were appointed to reorganize medical education in Japan and they incorporated acupuncture as part of that system. 29 :264 Japan later sent students back to though it is more likely to have been brought into Korea from a Chinese colonial prefecture in 514 AD. 29 :262-263 Acupuncture use was commonplace in Korea by the 6th century. Some of the sites acupuncturists use needles at today still have the same names as this given to them by the Yellow empower's Classic. 29 :93 Numerous additional documents were published over the centuries introducing new acupoints. 29 :101 By the 4th century AD, most of the acupuncture sites in use today had been named and identified. 29 :101 In the first half of the 1st century AD, acupuncturists began promoting the belief that acupuncture's effectiveness was influenced by the time of day or night, the lunar cycle, and the season. 29 :140-141 The Science of the Yin-Yang Cycles yen chi Hsüeh was a set of beliefs are still unable to find a shred of evidence to support the existence of meridians or C'i”, 21 “The traditional principles of acupuncture are deeply flawed, as there is no evidence at all to demonstrate the existence of C'i or meridians” 22 and “As yin and yang, acupuncture points and meridians are not a reality, but merely the product of an ancient Chinese philosophy”. 23 Tyne, D.; Shenker, N. The tip of the needle should not be made too sharp to prevent breakage, although blunt needles cause more pain. 49 Apart from the usual filiform needle, other needle types include three-edged needles and the Nine Ancient many governments have adopted similar standards. 299 In China, the practice of acupuncture is regulated by the Chinese Medicine Council that was formed in 1999 by the Legislative Council.
It.s.ifficult but not impossible to design rigorous research trials for acupuncture. 69 70 Due to acupuncture's invasive nature, one of the major challenges in efficacy research is in the design of an appropriate placebo control group . 71 72 For efficacy studies to determine whether acupuncture has specific effects, “sham” forms of acupuncture where the patient, practitioner, and analyst are blinded seem the most acceptable approach. 69 Sham acupuncture uses non-penetrating needles or needling at non-acupuncture points, 73 e.g. inserting needles on meridians not related to the specific condition being studied, all the ancient materials that could have been used for acupuncture and which often produce archaeological evidence, such as sharpened bones, bamboo or stones, were also used for other purposes. 29 An article in Rheumatology said that the absence of any mention of acupuncture in documents found in the tomb of Ma-Wang-Dui from 198 BC suggest that acupuncture was not practiced by that time. 27 Several and sometimes conflicting belief systems emerged regarding acupuncture. They were in the same locations as China's spiritually identified acupuncture points, but under a different nomenclature. 27 The first elaborate Western treatise on acupuncture was published acupuncture to cause bleeding, while others mixed the ideas of blood-letting and spiritual Ph'i energy.
The.excepFions.o.his conclusion included the use of acupuncture during embryo transfer as an adjunct to in vitro fertilization. 138 A 2013 Cochran review found low to moderate evidence that acupuncture improves pain and stiffness in treating people with fibromyalgia compared with no treatment and standard care. 139 A 2012 review found “there is insufficient evidence to recommend acupuncture for the treatment of fibromyalgia.” 74 A 2010 systematic review found a small pain relief effect that was not apparently discernible from bias; acupuncture is not a recommendable treatment for the management of fibromyalgia on the basis of this review. 140 A 2012 review found that the effectiveness of acupuncture to treat rheumatoid arthritis is “sparse and inconclusive.” 74 A 2005 Cochran review concluded that acupuncture use to treat rheumatoid arthritis “has no effect on ear, CPR, pain, patient's global assessment, number of swollen joints, number of tender joints, general health, disease activity and reduction of analgesics.” 141 A 2010 overview of systematic reviews found insufficient evidence to recommend acupuncture in the treatment of most rheumatic conditions, with the exceptions of osteoarthritis, low back pain, and lateral elbow pain. 142 A 2014 overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses found that the evidence does not demonstrate acupuncture helps reduce the rates of death or disability after a stroke or improve other aspects of stroke recovery, such as post stroke motor dysfunction, but the evidence suggests it may help with post stroke neurological impairment and dysfunction such as dysphagia, which would need to be confirmed with future rigorous studies. 143 A 2012 review found evidence of benefit for acupuncture combined with exercise in treating shoulder pain after stroke. 144 A 2010 systematic review found that acupuncture was not effective as a treatment for functional recovery after a stroke. 145 A 2012 overview of systematic reviews found inconclusive evidence supporting the effectiveness of acupuncture for stroke. 146 A 2015 systematic review found limited evidence that the method of Xingnao Kaiqiao needling had a better effect than Xingnao Kaiqiao alone or combined with other treatments in reducing disability rate for ischemic stroke, and that the long-term effect was better than traditional acupuncture or combination treatment. 147 A 2014 meta-analysis found tentative evidence for acupuncture in cerebral infarction, a type of ischemic stroke, but the authors noted the trials reviewed were often of poor quality. 148 A 2008 Cochran review found that evidence was insufficient to draw any conclusion about the effect of acupuncture on dysphagia after acute stroke. 149 A 2006 Cochran review found no clear evidence for acupuncture on sub acute or chronic acupuncture clinic stroke. 150 A 2005 Cochran review found no clear evidence of benefit for acupuncture on acute stroke. 151 A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis found that acupuncture was “associated with a significant reduction in sleep disturbances in women experiencing menopause related sleep disturbances.” 152 For the following conditions, the Cochran collabouration or other reviews have concluded there is no strong evidence of benefit: alcohol dependence, 153 angina pectoris, 154 ankle sprain, 155 156 Alzheimer's disease, 157 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 158 159 autism, 160 161 asthma, 162 163 bell's palsy, 164 165 traumatic brain injury, 166 carpal tunnel syndrome, 167 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 168 cardiac arrhythmias, 169 cerebral haemorrhage, 170 cocaine dependence, 171 constipation, 172 depressions, 173 174 diabetic peripheral neuropathy, 175 drug detoxification, 176 177 dry eye, 178 primary dysmenorrhoea, 179 enuresis, 180 endometriosis, 181 epilepsy, 182 erectile dysfunction, 183 essential hypertension, 184 glaucoma, 185 gynaecological conditions except possibly fertility and nausea/vomiting, 186 hot flashes, 187 188 189 190 hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in neonates, 191 insomnia, 192 193 194 inductions of childbirth, 195 irritable bowel syndrome, 196 labour pain, 197 198 lumbar spinal stenos is, 199 major depressive disorders in pregnant women, 200 musculoskeletal disorders of the extremities, 201 myopia, 202 obesity, 203 204 obstetrical conditions, 205 Parkinson's disease, 206 207 polies cystic ovary syndrome, 208 premenstrual syndrome, 209 preoperative anxiety, 210 opioid addiction, 211 212 restless legs syndrome, 213 schizophrenia, 214 sensorineural hearing loss, 215 smoking cessation, 216 stress urinary incontinence, 217 acute stroke, 218 stroke rehabilitation, 219 temporomandibular joint dysfunction, 220 221 tennis elbow, 222 labor induction, 223 tinnitus, 224 225 uraemic itching, 226 uterine fibroids, 227 vascular dementia, 228 and whiplash . 229 A 2010 overview of systematic reviews found that moxibustion was effective for several conditions but the primary studies were of poor quality, so there persists ample uncertainty, which limits the conclusiveness of their findings. 230 A 2012 systematic review suggested that cupping therapy seems to be effective for herpes Foster and various other conditions but due to the high risk of publication bias, larger studies are needed to draw definitive conclusions. 231 Acupuncture is generally safe when administered by an experienced, appropriately trained practitioner using clean-needle technique and sterile single-use needles. 16 17 When improperly delivered it can cause adverse effects. 16 Accidents and infections are associated with infractions of sterile technique or neglect on the part of the practitioner. 17 To reduce the risk of serious adverse events after acupuncture, acupuncturists should be trained sufficiently. 10 People with serious spinal disease, such as cancer or infection, are not good candidates for acupuncture. 2 Contraindications to acupuncture conditions that should not be treated with acupuncture include coagulopathy disorders e.g. haemophilia and advanced liver disease, warfarin use, severe psychiatric disorders e.g. psychosis, and skin infections or skin trauma e.g. burns. 2 Further, electro acupuncture should be avoided at the spot of implanted electrical devices such as pacemakers. 2 A 2011 systematic review of systematic reviews internationally and without language restrictions found that serious complications following acupuncture continue to be reported. 10 Between 2000 and 2009, ninety-five cases of serious adverse events, including five deaths, were reported. 10 Many such events are not inherent to acupuncture but are due to malpractice of acupuncturists. 10 This might be why such complications have not been reported in surveys of adequately-trained acupuncturists. 10 Most such reports originate from Asia, which may reflect the large number of treatments performed there or a relatively higher number of poorly trained Asian acupuncturists. 10 Many serious adverse events were reported from developed countries. 10 These included Australia, Austria, Canada, Croatia, France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the UK, and the US. 10 The number of adverse effects reported from the UK appears particularly unusual, which may indicate less under-reporting in the UK than other countries. 10 though it is more likely to have been brought into Korea from a Chinese colonial prefecture in 514 AD. 29 :262-263 Acupuncture use was commonplace in Korea by the 6th century. traditionally, acupuncture was used to treat acute conditions that curing diseases relied on the alignment of both heavenly then and earthly ti forces that were attuned to cycles like that of the sun and moon. 29 :140-141 There were several belief systems that relied on a number of celestial and earthly bodies or elements that rotated and only became aligned at certain times. 29 :140-141 According to Needham and Gwei-djen, these “arbitrary predictions” were depicted by acupuncturists in complex charts and through a set of special terminology. 29 Acupuncture needles during this period were much thicker than most modern ones and often resulted in infection. It.evolves inserting needles to stimulate points on the outer ear . 63 The modern approach was developed in France during the early 1950s. 63 There is no scientific evidence many governments have adopted similar standards. 299 In China, the practice of acupuncture is regulated by the Chinese Medicine Council that was formed in 1999 by the Legislative Council.